Document Library

I. CLERMONT REPORTS (CR):

2010-A-CR, Preliminary Clermont Farm Cemetery: Test Excavations 2010
A report on test excavations in a 35’X55′ stone-walled apparent family cemetery demonstrated that the plot was a) a cemetery (with fieldstone markers), and b) in use during the 18th century. 28 pages.

2011-A1-CR, at Interpretive Forum I: Program Invitation and Overview
A  summary of the program for the Clermont Interpretive Forum I on June 24-25, 2011, in which nine Virginia historians presented papers on seven topics relevant to the Clermont site, organized by Warren Hofstra, Ph.D., Shenandoah University.  2 pages

2011-A2-CR, at Interpretive Forum I: Summary Report on Forum I
A summary of the purpose and process of the Forum, and of the content of its nine papers and their recommendations, by the Chairman, Warren Hofstra.  17 pages

2011-A3-CR, at Interpretive Forum I (Public History): “Out With the Old, In With the New: Rethinking Clermont As A Historic Site”
Rice considers some of the potential uses of the Clermont site in a time when attendance at traditional-model historic house/plantation sites is sharply declining, but growing at sites that have found new work to do and different ways to engage their audiences and the communities they are part of.  18 pages

2011-A4-CR, at Interpretive Forum I (Agriculture): “Farming at Clermont During the Age of Grain: The World of Edward McCormick”               
Koons discusses the centrality of commercial wheat farming to Edward McCormick’s agricultural entrepreneurship at Clermont in the mid-19th century, placing it and the central tendencies of this type of farming in a broader context.  20 pages

2011-A4a-CR, at Interpretive Forum I (Agriculture):  Tables and Figures for ‘Farming at Clermont in the Age of Grain”
Tables: Kenneth E. Koons; Figures as credited; Tables © The Clermont Foundation, Figures rights as credited; IS available for download for personal or classroom use; credit to: Courtesy of The Clermont Foundation.

2011-A5-CR, at Interpretive Forum I (African American Life): “House of Bondage, Springboard Into Freedom: Clermont and Clarke County’s Black Community”
Ely discusses both the representative and singular qualities of Clarke County as a county with a disproportionately high number of slaves in the Shenandoah Valley, and of two subjects of importance which pervade the history of race there and throughout the South: black self-help, and black-white relations.  13 pages

2011-A6-CR, at Interpretive Forum I (African American Life): “African American Daily Life At Clermont”
White reviews the importance, and demonstrates the possibilities of naming and placing in family relationships the unnamed/single-named enslaved African Americans who built and operated Clermont, and into relationship with their descendents through Reconstruction and into modern times, emphasizing the importance of this for the integrity of interpretation of Clermont.  22 pages

2011-A7-CR, at Interpretive Forum I (Gender/Womens’ History): “Wedded To The Land, Nurturing Its People: Women At Clermont”
Lee explores the sources relating to black and white women at Clermont over a 180 period (1824-2004) and three themes that emerge: nurturing, place, and lineage; suggesting not only lines for further research but also elements of the mission of today’s Clermont:  nurturing the community, connecting people with the landscape, and engaging them in building a future conscious of the past.  43 pages

2011-A8-CR, at Interpretive Forum I (Architectural History): “Clermont: An Evolved ‘Virginia’ House”
Pogue provides a description of the owner’s house at Clermont through its successive construction phases from 1755-56 through 1971, places it in the context of other Chesapeake houses, noting that its remarkably high level of preservation and precise chronological data allows Clermont to serve as a class room for the study of Virginia architecture over more than 200 years, and a case study for the trajectory of the region’s social development.  14 pages

2011-A9-CR, at Interpretive Forum I (Architectural History): “From Wadlington To Williams: Clermont As An Evolving Homestead”
Kalbian describes the rich documentary history of Clermont and relates it to the social and economic history of the site, connecting it to the extensive  dendrochronological studies of the site’s buildings, as well as to other period dwellings in Clarke and neighboring counties; she also describes Clermont’s remaining log slave house (1823) and the smoke house (1803).  15 pages

2011-A10-CR, at Interpretive Forum I (Medical/Legal History): “Law, Medicine, and Clermont”
Wallenstein discusses over two and a half centuries of doctors and lawyers in the McCormick-Williams families, beginning with Dr. John McCormick (1703-1768, immigrates from Ireland ca. 1730), viewing Clermont as a portal through which can be traced local involvement in large events and broad developments over much of the country’s history.  24 pages

2011-A11-CR, at Interpretive Forum I (Military History): “Clermont As Military Witness”
Whitehorne describes military events that occurred near or on Clermont, but indicates that the greater military story lies in the contributions of its four owner-families (Vance, Wadlington, Snickers, McCormick-Williams) serving in every generation and who in doing so witnessed many of the events that defined and explained the path of American history, whose final representative was Admiral Lynde McCormick, the first Supreme Commander Atlantic NATO, who died in office as President of the Naval War College in 1956.  39 pages

2011-A12-CR, at Interpretive Forum I: Biographies of the Participants (2011)
Biographies of the Chairman and nine presenters at the Clermont Interpretive Forum I, as of June, 2011.  5 pages

2013-A1-CR, Clermont Historic Structure Report (Text)
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A2-CR, HSR Appendix A: Annotated Bibliography
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented. 

2013-A3-CR, HSR Appendix B: Location of HSR Chapter 4 Building Photographs
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A4-CR, HSR Appendix C: Existing Conditions Drawings
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A5-CR, HSR Appendix D: Conjectural Drawings by Periods 1-6 (1756-1981)
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A6-CR, HSR Appendix E: Interior Existing Moldings/Woodwork Drawings
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A7-CR, HSR Appendix F: Exterior Existing Moldings/Woodwork Drawings
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A8-CR, HSR Appendix G: Framing, Flooring, Door and Hardware Schedules
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A9-CR, HSR Appendix H: Historic Photo Images
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A10-CR, HSR Appendix I-1: Interior Paint Analysis Report
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A11-CR, HSR Appendix I-2: Exterior Paint Analysis Report
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A12-CR, HSR Appendix J: Dendrochronology Report
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A13-CR, HSR Appendix K: Historic Construction Drawings
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A14-CR, HSR Appendix L: Archaeological Survey Plan 2012-2017
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A15-CR, HSR Appendix M: Historic Concealed Shoe Report
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A16-CR, HSR Appendix N: Structural Existing Condition Floor Plans
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2013-A17-CR, HSR Appendix O: Building Dates Related to Ownership Chronology
This Historic Structure Report contains social and architectural histories of the site and its buildings, an examination of their current conditions, and recommendations for their future treatment (mode: Preservation) based on the uses foreseen in the Long-Range Plan 2012-2020, plus recommendations for further research.  It was conducted over a five year period by a team of twelve specialists led by Maral Kalbian, Architectural Historian, whose winning bid was accepted in 2008.  In addition to the full 280-page text presented here, there are 16 Appendices, lettered A through O, containing a large bibliography related to the site, technical reports including very extensive dendrochronology and paint analysis, historical photographs, complete conjectural plans and elevations for six major periods, etc. – these are each separately presented.

2015-A1-CR, Final Report on Hurricane Sandy Clermont Slave Quarter Project
The Hurricane Sandy Disaster Relief Assistance Grants for Historic Properties, administered  nationally by the U. S. Department of the Interior,  National Park Service, and in Virginia by the Department of Historic Resources, provided grant 2014-1450 VA 11 in the federal amount of $220,000 for the rehabilitation of the Clermont Slave Quarter built in 1823.  The report documents the work carried out primarily by HistoriCorps, an organization using and training volunteers, to repair this log and stone, 28’x41’ story-and-a-half building.  The building’s significance stems not only from having for over 40 years housed a portion of the men, women, and children enslaved at Clermont, but also that for another 100 years it continued to house agricultural laborers (primarily single men) paid in board, room, and wages, thus witnessing the transition from enslaved to paid labor and the concomitant social changes, from the Civil War to mid-20th century.

 II. RELATED REPORTS (RR)

2002-A-RR, Final Report: African American Historical Context in Clarke County, VA
Kalbian and Boyer describe the history of African Americans in Clarke County in a report designed to support public information and educational activities by the County, the Clarke County African-American Cultural Center at the Josephine School Community Museum, the Clarke County Historical Association, and others.  146 pages

 

III.  MAPS/SURVEYS  (MS)

2007-A-MS, NRCS Conservation Plan, Field Map, Clermont Farm
The map shows Clermont Farm, in Clarke County, VA, with 360 acres (roughly co-terminus with the George Washington survey of 1750 dividing the farm from the Fairfax Northern Neck Proprietary, plus seven acres added by highway change).  Included are the field lines for a rotational grazing system, and two conservation areas, one protecting Dog Run which crosses the farm and is a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, and one protecting a small wetland.  1 page

2010-A-MS, Site Plan, Clermont Farm, Virginia Department of Historic Resources (DHR, owner of site)
The site plan shows the cultural and natural features of Clermont Farm, located on the east side of Berryville, in Clarke County, VA.  1 page

2013-A-MS, Regional Setting Locator Map for Clermont Farm, also showing the Fairfax Northern Neck Proprietary
This regional locator map is bounded by Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, PA, on the north, and Blacksburg and Hampton, VA, on the south.  It shows the Fairfax Northern Neck Proprietary bounded by the Potomac and Rappahannock Rivers, plus the Fairfax Line, covering areas in what is now both Virginia and West Virginia.  Inside that area is Clarke County, VA, and Clermont Farm  1 page

2013-B-MS, Regional Setting Locator Map for Clermont Farm, showing the trace of the Colonial Highways to the Ports of Alexandria, Baltimore, and Philadelphia.
This version of the regional locator map shows the trace of the colonial highways adjacent to Clermont and critical to the delivery of its products to the regional and Atlantic markets via Alexandria, Baltimore, and Philadelphia .  Ten miles to the west of Clermont is Winchester, VA, sited on N-S Rt. 11, formerly the Great Philadelphia Wagon Road, formerly the Great Warrior Path, and next to I-81.  Bordering the north boundary of Clermont is VA Rt. 7 E-W,  the colonial highway from Alexandria to Winchester.  Current Rt. 340 one mile from Clermont was part of the early route to Baltimore.  1 page

 

 IV. ADMINISTRATIVE REPORTS (AR)

2012-A-AR, Plan for the Long-Range Uses and Interpretation of Clermont Farm 2012-2020
The Plan is an effort of the Clermont Trustees (holders of the Williams Endowment for Clermont Farm, and managers of the site on behalf of DHR) and DHR, in cooperation with many local and regional constituencies, to lay out mutually-agreed guidelines and objectives for the uses and interpretation of the site, whose purpose is now defined as a research and training site in history, historic preservation, and agriculture.  The core document presented here has 19 pages; other components (previous plan report, future work plans, etc.) will be made available later.